Database management is a method of managing information that is used to support a company’s business operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to users and applications and editing it as required as well as monitoring changes in data and making sure that data integrity is not compromised due to unexpected failure. It is an element of a company’s informational infrastructure that aids in decision-making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which enabled the storage and retrieve large amounts of information for a range of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complicated human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database is a collection of tables that store data in accordance with a specific pattern, such as one-to-many relationships. It uses the primary key to identify records and permits cross-references among tables. Each table contains a set of attributes or fields that represent facts about data entities. The most widely used kind of database is a relational model created by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This design is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It is also simpler to update data because it does not require changing many sections of the databases.

Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases through different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level is focused on the cost, scalability, and other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level determines how the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It could include a mix of different external views that are based on different data models and could include virtual tables that are calculated with generic data to enhance the performance.

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